A deadlock occurs when 2 processes are competing for exclusive access to a resource but is unable to obtain exclusive access to it, because the other process is preventing it. This results in a standoff where neither process can proceed. The only way out of a deadlock is for one of the processes to be terminated. SQL Server automatically detects when deadlocks have occurred and takes action by killing one of the processes known as the victim.

It is possible to find the deadlock by sing the below query on sys.dm_tran_locks table:

SELECT  L.request_session_id AS SPID, 
    DB_NAME(L.resource_database_id) AS DatabaseName,
    O.Name AS LockedObjectName, 
    P.object_id AS LockedObjectId, 
    L.resource_type AS LockedResource, 
    L.request_mode AS LockType,
    ST.text AS SqlStatementText,        
    ES.login_name AS LoginName,
    ES.host_name AS HostName,
    TST.is_user_transaction as IsUserTransaction,
    AT.name as TransactionName,
    CN.auth_scheme as AuthenticationMethod
FROM    sys.dm_tran_locks L
    JOIN sys.partitions P ON P.hobt_id = L.resource_associated_entity_id
    JOIN sys.objects O ON O.object_id = P.object_id
    JOIN sys.dm_exec_sessions ES ON ES.session_id = L.request_session_id
    JOIN sys.dm_tran_session_transactions TST ON ES.session_id = TST.session_id
    JOIN sys.dm_tran_active_transactions AT ON TST.transaction_id = AT.transaction_id
    JOIN sys.dm_exec_connections CN ON CN.session_id = ES.session_id
    CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text(CN.most_recent_sql_handle) AS ST
WHERE   resource_database_id = db_id()
ORDER BY L.request_session_id

Sources: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12422986/sql-query-to-get-the-deadlocks-in-sql-server-2008